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====February and October Revolutions 1917====
[[File:19170704_Riot_on_Nevsky_prosp_Petrograd.jpg|thumbnail|left|300px|Troops open fire on Russian protesters in 1917.]]
By February 1917 the situation was unbearable for the average Russian soldier and citizens. A series of strikes were staged in St. Petersburg and the Tsar ordered the army to break the strikes. Instead the army mutinied and began to fraternize with the strikers.<ref>Robert Service (2005). ''A history of modern Russia from Nicholas II to Vladimir Putin''. Harvard University Press</ref> The authority of the Tsar simply ebbed away and he was forced to abdicate. A Provisional Government that claimed to represent the workers and the peasants took power. This became known as the October Revolution.<ref>Malone, Richard (2004). ''Analyzing the Russian Revolution''. Australia: Cambridge University Press. p. 67.</ref>
However, following the collapse in the Tsarist government many local committees known as Soviets, took power all over Russia. They often refused to recognize the authority of the Provisional Government. Many of the Soviets were dominated by the Bolsheviks or Communists who were loyal to their exiled leader Lenin. The Provisional government wanted to continue with the war and this made it very unpopular with many especially the Soviets. Radical groups like the Bolsheviks stated that they wanted to bring an end to the war. They also made themselves very popular by promising food to the people and the redistribution of land. Their slogan was ‘Peace and Bread’. The Provisional Government was fast losing control of the situation. Russian soldiers began deserting and the army was close to defeat. However, the leader of the Provisional Government, Alexander Kerensky refused to compromise. This was to prove fatal.