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==Lack of a National Consciousness==
Nationalism is a modern phenomenon. In the eighteenth century, there was no real national identity in India. The many people in the Indian sub-continent did not regard themselves as Indians. It was only in the twentieth century that the people of the sub-continent had a sense of belonging to a nation. The majority of people identified with their tribe, clan ethnic group or religion. This meant that the peoples of the sub-continent were very divided among themselves. This allowed the British to use some of the natives to help them in running and governing the Empire. This is best seen in the British policies on the Indian army. The British East India Company regularly used native Indian troops in order to defend and expand their territory in the sub-continent. Without these Indian troops, it is highly unlikely that the British would ever have been able to establish their ascendency in the sub-continent. It was also a factor in the conquest of large areas of Asia and Africa by Europeans at this time and later <ref> Smith, Simon. ''British Imperialism 1750–1970 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994), p 145</ref> . Furthermore, because there was a lack of unity among the Indians, they were more than willing to work with the British and to betray each other. The victory of the British at the Battle of Plassey was due to the treachery of one of the Nawab of Bengal's ally.(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998), p 78.</ref>. At one time or another, the various local rulers were allied with the British as they pursued their own political interests. The lack of national unity meant that the British were able to adopt a classic divine and rule policy. This all greatly facilitated the British piece-meal take-over of the lands of India until they had assumed a pre-eminence in the sub-continent<ref> Smith, p. 134</ref>.
'''Lack of Colonial Rivals'''