→The Kingdom of Hawaii
The Kingdom of Hawaii came about after the conquest of the Hawaiian islands by Kamehameha, who was king in the main island of Hawaii. In 1810, the islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined kingdom after they volunteered to join the larger state. Prior to this unification of he islands, each of the Hawaiian islands was ruled by local chiefs who were believed to descend from the Polynesian Earth mother goddess. During the approximate 100 years of Hawaiian rule, many social and political changes occurred on the islands, including increasing trade relations with China and the United States. The first major trade agreements were established with China, with sandalwood traded from Hawaii. Queen Kaʻahumanu (1819-1832), one of the rulers, also attempted to modernize Hawaiian society by helping to introduce literacy and improving women rights. The Hawaiin military also modernized with the introduction of canons and muskets. This was also a period when a constitution was established for rule. In 1848, the Great Māhele was an event that saw major land redistribution on the islands, with 98 percent of lands going to chiefs and nobles. Land could also not be sold but transferred to others with the same lineage. However, what also changed Hawaii in this time was smallpox and other diseases that became common as Hawaiians increasingly came into contact with outsiders. The population went from about 120,000 Hawaiians in 1778 to 24,000 by 1920.
In 1849, there was an invasion by French troops over the issue of Catholics gaining religious rights. The invading force caused damage but eventually withdrew. After 1850, Americans increasingly came to Hawaii, initially missionaries who largely converted the native population to Christianity. The missionaries became powerful in influence to the royal family and in setting up commerce on the islands. Sugar became the primary industry in Hawaii as that was seen as the most profitable. This also changed Hawaii's demographic makeup by bringing over 200,000 laborers from east Asia, including from China, Japan, and the Philippines. Many of these laborers stayed after their contract periods, although most did go home. In 1872, the first ruling Hawaiian dynasty, the Kamehameha dynasty, died out. With the death of the dynasty, monarchs became elected with the first elected monarch being William C. Lunalil. In 1887, the so-called Bayonet Constitution, due to the fact it was threatened by force on the king, was passed, which effectively made the Hawaiian kingdom a constitutional monarchy similar to the United Kingdom. This gave the legislature and cabinet government power over the king. In 1891, Liliʻuokalani became the queen in Hawaii and she soon threatened to change the constitution to put more power back in the monarch's hands. The queen came in a time of economic troubles for Hawaii, as President McKinley had enacted tariffs that removed advantages Hawaiian exporters enjoyed previously in the US. In 1893, a group of non-natives (5 Americans, 1 British, and 1 German) overthrew the queen as they saw the tariffs as a threat to their businesses. The local US government minister, John L. Stevens, then ordered US sailors to land on the island and take up positions on key areas of US interest. The Committee of Safety, which was a group of mainly US individuals with business and missionary interests that planned for the overthrow, proclaimed an 'imminent threat to American lives and property' to justify the overthrow and occupation of the Hawaiian islands by US forces. This effectively ended the Hawaiian Kingdom.
==Joining the US==