→Modern New Year's Eve in the West and Other Celebrations
==Modern New Year's Eve in the West and Other Celebrations==
By 1800, people began to traditionally stay up until about midnight to see the New Year arrive. This became common in households across Europe and North America, including having gatherings with family and friends to see the New Year. These gatherings would also involve sometimes heavy drinking. In the 19th century, specifically in 1878 in Britain, St Paul’s Cathedral was installed with new bells, where crowds gathered on New Year's Eve and celebrated the ringing of the bells for the first time. Over time, this tradition became more of an interest to the public, as the bells were rung on New Year's Eve. In subsequent years, more people gathered, often heavy drinking was associated with such gatherings and many, once again, began to object to such overt acts of celebration. What this did, however, is instill the idea that public events and parties could be held to celebrate the New Year. Elsewhere, in Scotland and also those who came from Scotland in the United States, the old Scottish poem 'Auld Lang Syne', which has the well-known lyrics 'should old acquaintance be forgot', developed from a well known Scottish poem in the 18th century and was transcribed by Robert Burns. This poem began to be associated with New Year's Day by the mid-19th century as people began to sing it in different gatherings, often at home, on New Year's Eve. The idea was people would gather with friends and family and sing the song to remember others and look forward towards meeting in the future. This tradition was carried out by those with Scottish ancestry but in the United States it began to be associated with New Year's Eve celebrations more broadly after it was played on the radio on December 31st, 1929 for the first time. Traditions in the United States also emerged from the <i>New York Times</i> beginning a pattern of holding a large party in 1904 for staff in what was known as Longacre Square (renamed Times Square). This party became well known and in subsequent years it was held not only for staff of the well known paper but its popularity spread. In 1907, when the city of New York banned fireworks, an electrician devised the idea of a 700 pound illuminated ball to drop
. This led to that tradition being established. Since that time, New York became inspirational to how New Years parties and events developed throughout the country. Many towns later adopted similar traditions or evolved them from how New York held its New Year's Eve parties in the early 20th century. Other traditions also evolved with celebratory meals on New Year's Day. Pork, for instance, became a popular food for many European descendants because it was seen a prosperous food and was intended to symbolize prosperity in the New Year. News papers also in the early 20th century began to reflect on the year around December and publications would often lead up to New Year's Day with a focus on key events that shaped the year . This tradition continues to this day.<ref>For more on how Anglo-American traditions for New Year's Eve and Day evolved, see: Blocker, J.S., Fahey, D.M., Tyrrell, I.R. (Eds.), 2003. <i>Alcohol and temperance in modern history: an international encyclopedia</i>. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, Calif.</ref>
Throughout the world, there are many different New Year's Eve or Day celebrations, including different days depending on which calendar is followed. Calendars in the Middle East are still somewhat influenced by the ancient cultures there, with the holiday Nowruz celebrating the New Year in the March vernal equinox on the 20th/21st of March in places such as Iran and Kurdish regions. Diwali is a Hindu holiday celebrated in mid-October to mid-November and celebrates victory of light over darkness, good over evil, and knowledge over ignorance.
This is why commonly the celebration includes fireworks today. For the Chinese New Year, it traditionally begins between 21 January and 20 February depending on the new moon during that time. Similar to more ancient New Year traditions, it was a time to celebrate different gods to bring good luck in the harvest and year, while the dead ancestors were also celebrated and often prayed for. Many countries in Asia, in fact, often use two calendars, with one being the traditional often lunar or lunar-solar calendar used to celebrate New Year Day at different times. On the other hand, many Asian countries also celebrate January 1st as the civil calendar New Year Day.<ref>For more on New Year's Day celebrations worldwide, see: Crump, W.D., 2008. <i>Encyclopedia of New Year’s holidays worldwide</i>. McFarland & Co, Jefferson, N.C.</ref>
[[File: 138deddfb0977514a371534df8566aba.jpeg|300px|thumbnail|left|What became Times Square and how it looked in 1904 in advance of the first party held there on New Year's Eve in 1904.]]