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Soon, European powers began attacking US merchant ships and impressing United States merchant sailors into foreign navies. In an effort to limit United States involvement in the European conflicts, Jefferson decided to close United States ports to all foreign trade. Instead of engaging with Europe, Jefferson essentially withdrew.
His effort to remain neutral in the face of European warfare was noble but ultimately failed to accomplish his goal. Not only did American traders flout the blockade by smuggling goods in and out of the United States, but the
country would also be eventually dragged into a conflict with England by 1812.
==Why did France and Britain Declare War in 1803?==