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Ultimately, it allowed Caesar to overthrow the Roman Republic and establish the Imperial system under his grand-nephew Octavian (Augustus). The Romanization of the Gallic provinces led to the development of Gallo-Roman culture and the end of Celtic Gaul. One of the long-term consequences of the Caesarean conquest of Gaul was that it probably saved Celtic Gaul from becoming overrun by German tribes. The conquest of Gaul confirmed that Rome was not just a Mediterranean power but a European one. After the conquest, Rome was free to take over other areas in western Europe, including Britain.
Julius Caesar was an aristocrat and a prominent politician in Rome. He had entered an informal arrangement with Pompey and Crassus, which had brought a measure of stability in Rome after many years of conflict. Cesar had himself appointed as commander of Roman Legions in the south of Gaul. Gaul was an area that approximated modern France, Luxembourg, part of the Netherlands, and Belgium. Gaul covered much of Western Europe. Much of the area was dominated by Celtic tribes who had developed a sophisticated political system and culture.<ref> Caesar, Gallic Wars. 1.1</ref> Cesar and some legions were in the south of Gaul to protect the Greek city-state of Massalia (Marseilles) from attack by Celtic tribes. Cesar was only instructed to repel any attackers, but as he was in the area, the Helvetti, from modern Switzerland, migrated into the region around Massalia.<ref> Goldsworthy, Adrian. Julius Caesar (London, Orion, 2007), p. 119 </ref>