==What Archaeology Tells Us==
To better understand how milk became consumed by different human societies we need help from archaeology. This is very clear in Europe, where many early Neolithic sites have been dated using radiocarbon dating techniques. Looking at the regions where early agriculture and milk consumption occurred, including ceramics that show evidence of milk being processed within them, and cow bones have been found, we can trace regions in Europe where the population after the arrival of agriculture from the Near East began to be more dependent on cattle.<ref>For a discussion on archaeological remains related to dairy, see: Oliver E. Craig, John Chapman, Carl Heron, Laura H. Willis, László Bartosiewicz, Gillian Taylor, Alasdair Whittle and Matthew Collins (2005). Did the first farmers of central and eastern Europe produce dairy foods? Antiquity 79: 882-894.</ref> We know in the ancient Near East that sheep and goat were more utilized. However, in central and eastern Europe, cattle became preferred and this led to more consumption of cow milk. While cow milk is similar to sheep and goat milk, there are different properties and this led to different genetic changes in human populations that consumed this. We see this first happening during the so-called Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture, which was the first European culture to adopt farming and spread its use in other parts of Europe (Figure 2).<ref>For information about LBK culture, see: Gotherstrom, A., C. Anderung, L. Hellborg, R. Elburg, C. Smith, D. G Bradley, and H. Ellegren. 2005. “Cattle Domestication in the Near East Was Followed by Hybridization with Aurochs Bulls in Europe.” ''Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272'' (1579): 2345–51. dos:10.1098/rspb.2005.3243.</ref>As this culture begins to spread from eastern Europe to other areas, such as Germany, France, and northern Europe, milk consumption also begins to spread. Populations in Europe begin to utilize cow milk more regularly in their food consumption, leading to, over time, more people adapting to become lactose tolerant. This, therefore, serves as an example of a different evolutionary path and genetic changes that led to milk consumption for European populations . Figure 2. Distribution of Linearbandkeramik culture and their origins in Europe (https://i2.wp.com/cdn.eupedia.com/images/content/LBK_culture.png?zoom=2).