→Work in Philosophy
==Work in Philosophy==
Although several well known Greek philosophers had lived and even taught Aristotle, who lived between 384-322 BCE, one can argue it is Aristotle's views on ethics and morality that became highly influential to modern philosophy. While many of Aristotle's works have not survived, where he likely authored well over a hundred large works, his surviving works influenced Greek and Roman thought, with this philosophy coming down to our own societies particularly in the West.<ref> For a biography on Aristotle, see: Natali, C., & Hutchinson, D. S. (2013). Aristotle: his life and school. Princeton: Princeton University Press.</ref> One major area where he contributed was in logic. In fact, his contributions in logic were still the main form utilized in Western philosophy at least until the 19th century AD. Most of what we term as logic deals with word analytics, where word structure and order are analyzed and interpreted in forming a conclusion. Reasoning was something derived from the order and presentation of an argument.
Aristotle's key compiled work, or a work put together by later followers and scholars, is ''Organon'', which compiled Aristotle's works that eventually formed the key parts of Aristotelian logic.<ref> For more on Aristotelian logic, see: Abed, S. (1991). Aristotelian logic and the Arabic language in Alfārābī. Albany, N.Y: State University of New York Press.</ref> Deduction developed in syllogism is perhaps his most significant contribution, where a premise is deduced into a conclusion. He also discusses induction, that is from a case to understanding larger phenomenon about the universe or world. These two forms of thinking, induction and deduction, are the foundations of modern scientific thought and form the primary way in how many arguments are created in logic discussions.<ref> For more on induction and deduction as seen by Aristotle, see: Spangler, M. M. (1998). Aristotle on teaching. Lanham, Md: University Press of America, pg. 7.</ref>
Ethics was also a key area of Aristotle's works, where he saw ethics as central to well-being and key component to a human's life. Concepts of justice, courage, temperance, and others are central to developing good virtues and living a well-balanced life.<ref> For more on Aristotle's ethics, see: Miller, J. (ed. ., & Miller, J. (2015). The
reception of Aristotle’s Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.</ref> What Aristotle does is make ethics an autonomous field that is divorced from the sciences and focused on developing and living a life of virtue and happiness. Ethics is still a distinct field today and, although there are many philosophies or views on ethics, has been heavily influenced by Aristotle's works.
Aristotle also saw the centrality and importance of politics to humans. He even quipped the famous line that man is a political animal by his nature.<ref> For more on Aristotle's politics and political thinking, see: Aristotle, & Sinclair, T. A. (1981). The politics (Rev. ed). Harmondsworth, England New York, N.Y: Penguin Books.</ref> Rationality were key aspects of humanity and that had to be central in successful politics according to Aristotle. He saw the city as a key place where humans can live and prosper; in fact, the city was more central than the individual, as the greater good was seen above the individual. A city was also a place where beauty should be found and art should be made to flourish in such places according to his belief.