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The Tanzimat reforms were carried out between 1830 and 1870 in the Ottoman Empire. They were a wide ranging series of reforms. They included educational, political and economic reforms. They are widely seen as part of the process of modernisation to stop the apparent decline of Ottoman power. The process of modernisation as in so many other countries involved adopting the models and practices of western countries and societies. This was motivated by the need to ensure that the Ottomans were able to compete against the western powers and to preserve their Empire. The modernisation process in the Ottoman Empire was a way of ensuring that they did not become the subjects of the western powers.<ref>Inalcık, H. and Quataert, D. An Economic and Social History of The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 189.</ref> During the nineteenth century much of the world became subject to the western powers, especially Britain and France. The article will show that the Tanzimat reforms were only partially successful and they did not halt the Ottoman decline.
Ottoman Soldiers in the nineteenth century.<ref>https://www.pinterest.com/pin/302867143667462226?</ref>
Until the 18th century the Ottoman Turks were at least as powerful as the great European powers. However, from the mid-1750, it became apparent that the Ottomans could not compete militarily with the great European powers, including Russian and the Hapsburg Empire.<ref>Qevket Pamuk Institutional Change and the Longevity of the Ottoman Empire, 1500–1800. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol xxxv:2, Autumn, 2004, p.247.</ref> In successive conflicts the armies of the Sultan, once invincible, were defeated and the Empire was losing territory. It appeared that their Christian enemies were slowly dismembering the Empire and that the existence of the realm was in danger.’.<ref>Parmuk, p. 235.</ref> It soon became apparent that the Ottoman armies, could not compete with the European armies. This meant that the Ottoman Turks were increasingly vulnerable to the European. The economic system that prevailed in the Empire in 1800 was largely similar to that of the fifteenth century, it was clearly unsuitable to the needs of a society that had to compete with the European nations, who were being transformed by the industrial revolution. <ref> Inalcık, H. and Quataert, D. An Economic and Social History of The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. 189. </ref> There was a recognition that there needed to be economic changes and also accompanying political and legal reforms. These were necessary because the Sultan and his advisors accepted that the Ottoman Empire had to modernize in order to preserve the Empire.