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Collapse of the Maya
More recently, more precise information on isotopic changes in sediments has allowed a more direct quantification on how much rainfall had to change to lead to the collapse of the Maya. Recent work has shown that between 41% and 54% (with intervals of up to 70%) of rainfall reduction in the Mayan regions likely occurred. In other words, reduction in rainfall was drastic and there was an accompanied decline in humidity, which likely led to more rapid drying with rainfall that fell.<ref>For more on the change in rainfall and how much this can be quantified to be, see: Evans, N. P., Bauska, T. K., Gázquez-Sánchez, F., Brenner, M., Curtis, J. H., & Hodell, D. A. (2018). Quantification of drought during the collapse of the classic Maya civilization. <i>Science</i>, 361(6401), 498–501.</ref>
In fact, relative to today, the region the Maya occupied was very different. It had been assumed the Maya created cities within jungles. However, the regions the Maya occupied were often drier, seasonally wet places that had cycle cyclical rains that the Maya likely increasingly became dependent on. Only later after the cities were abandoned they became jungles. That pattern of climate began to change between 800-1000 AD, which likely disrupted the agricultural system the Maya depended on. The agricultural system, composed of canals, terracing, raised fields, and other systems began to not be sustainable relative to the new, emergent climate. Wider environmental decline may have accompanied climatic change that affected the success of agriculture, such as a decline in the complex agricultural system created.<ref>For more on wider environmental change, including the ecology, see: Kuil, L., Carr, G., Viglione, A., Prskawetz, A., & Blöschl, G. (2016). Conceptualizing socio-hydrological drought processes: The case of the Maya collapse: Socio-Hydrological Drought Processes. <i>Water Resources Research</i>, 52(8), 6222–6242. </ref>

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