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==Decline of Ottoman Empire==
[[File:Kırım_Savaşı,_Türk_piyadeleri_1854_senesi.jpg|thumbnail|200px|Ottoman infantry soldiers]]
Until the 18th century the Ottoman Turks were at least as powerful as the great European powers. However, from the mid-1750s, Ottomans power declined and they could no compete militarily with Russian and the Hapsburg Empire.<ref>Qetvket Pamuk "Institutional Change and the Longevity of the Ottoman Empire, 1500–1800". ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'', vol xxxv:2, Autumn, 2004, p.247.</ref> In successive conflicts the armies of the Sultan, once invincible, were consistently defeated and the Empire lost territory. Their Christian adversaries slowly dismembered the Empire and that survival of the empire was threatened.<ref>Parmuk, p. 235.</ref> Just as the Ottoman military power was marginalized, their archaic economic system was becoming less viable. The economic system that prevailed in the Empire in 1800 had transformed little since the fifteenth century. The antiquated economy could not compete with the European nations that were being transformed by the industrial revolution. <ref>Inalcık, H. and Quataert, D. ''[https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0521343151/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0521343151&linkCode=as2&tag=dailyh0c-20&linkId=cc66c7ad16506b01ae1292a0e287e33a An Economic and Social History of The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914]''. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. 189.</ref> The leaders of the Ottoman recognized that there needed to be economic revolution accompanied by extensive political and legal reforms. The Sultan and his advisors accepted that the Ottoman Empire had to modernize in order to survive.
==Political and Legal Changes==