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[[File:Kırım_Savaşı,_Türk_piyadeleri_1854_senesi.jpg|thumbnail|Ottoman infantry soldiers]]
==Decline of Ottoman Empire==
Until the 18th century the Ottoman Turks were at least as powerful as the great European powers. However, from the mid-1750, it became apparent that the Ottomans could not compete militarily with the great European powers, including Russian and the Hapsburg Empire.<ref>Qevket Qetvket Pamuk "Institutional Change and the Longevity of the Ottoman Empire, 1500–1800". ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'', vol xxxv:2, Autumn, 2004, p.247.</ref> In successive conflicts the armies of the Sultan, once invincible, were defeated and the Empire was losing territory. It appeared that their Christian enemies were slowly dismembering the Empire and that the existence of the realm was in danger.’.<ref>Parmuk, p. 235.</ref> It soon became apparent that the Ottoman armies, could not compete with the European armies. This meant that the Ottoman Turks were increasingly vulnerable to the European. The economic system that prevailed in the Empire in 1800 was largely similar to that of the fifteenth century, it was clearly unsuitable to the needs of a society that had to compete with the European nations, who were being transformed by the industrial revolution. <ref> Inalcık, H. and Quataert, D. ''An Economic and Social History of The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914''. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. 189. </ref> There was a recognition that there needed to be economic changes and also accompanying political and legal reforms. These were necessary because the Sultan and his advisors accepted that the Ottoman Empire had to modernize in order to preserve the Empire. [[File:Thomas_allom,_c1840,_The_Enterance_to_Divan.png|thumbnail|Entrance to the Divan Istanbul in the nineteenth centuryby Thomas Allom]]
==Political and Legal Changes==
Among the most significant changes of the Tanzimat reforms were education. Previously education was dominated by the Islamic Clerics, and this was changed during the period.<ref> Incalek and Quatert, p. 103.</ref> The Ottoman government established schools and universities on the western model. This was designed to allow the Ottomans have the skills to run the economy and society in a modern way and to develop the technology they needed to develop modern armies and the economy need to sustain such forces. The Tanzimat reforms also provided political changes that were designed to improve the status of the non- Muslim population. They were granted equal status before the law with Muslims, for the first time.<ref> Suleyman Celenk Secularization Process in the History of Turkish Education. Journal Social Science, vol 19(2): 2009, p. 101</ref> These reforms sought to secure the allegiance of the diverse ethnic and religious groups of the Empire. The reforms also attempted to restrict the power of the Sultan and to ensure the rule of law throughout the land. There were even attempts to start a multi-party system. The Ottomans sought to emulate the more advanced western models to enable their society to modernize. The Ottoman government began to centralize authority into its own hands in order to ensure that the Tanzimat reforms succeeded despite the opposition of Islamic religious leaders and the majority Muslim population.<ref>Attila Ayetkin, ‘Peasant ''Peasant Protest in the Late Ottoman Empire: Moral Economy, Revolt, and the Tanzimat Reforms’Reforms''. International Review of Social History. Vol 57, August 2012, pp 191-227</ref>
==Economic Reforms==

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