A new constitution was introduced in 1931 ad it was a liberal document that guaranteed human rights and basic freedoms. The Constitution also separated the Church and State. Elections were again held in 1932. In the first elections under the Constitution in 1933, an alliance of right wing and center right parties came to power. Despite the establishment of democracy there was no stability.<ref>Paul Preston (2012). The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain. London, UK: HarperCollins</ref> This was partly a result of the economic consequences caused by the Great Depression. The left, including the Communists and the Trade Unions continued to press for their agendas.<ref>Beevor, ''Battle for Spain''</ref> They sought the nationalization of industry and the redistribution of land to the poor. The first democratically elected government was constantly undermined by General Strikes and local left wing revolts. In particular there was a revolt by miners in Asturias, which was suppressed by the army. The left could not simply abide by the outcome of the election and instead of achieving their goals by constitutional means, they opted for violent methods. <ref>Vincent, Mary (2007). Spain, 1833–2002. Oxford, UK; New York: Oxford University Press</ref>
A weakened government eventually collapsed and new elections were called for 1936. The General Election saw a victory for a left-wing alliance of parties, including Communists, Anarchists and Socialists. This government was also supported by regional parties. They immediately launched an ambitious program of reforms, especially land reform to meet the ‘expectations of the urban and rural poor’, that antagonize many in the Spanish elite.<ref>Preston, 7.</ref> Many Spaniards believed that a communist revolution was imminent.