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Julius Caesar is widely regarded as one of the greatest commanders of all time. His campaigns and tactics have been studied and admired by soldiers since the ancient era. Among his admirers were Napoleon and Rommel. Many regard him as the greatest general in history.
There are many reasons why the Roman general was so successful and why he never suffered a major reversal on the battlefield. This article will focus on the factors that made Caesar near-invincible in war. The Romans' success's three main reasons were his leadership skills, daring and speed, and his masterly use of artillery.
What was Caesar's Early Life Like?
Caesar was born into the Roman aristocracy into a family distinguished in the city for centuries. He was associated with the popular party in Rome and was related to the great general Marius. He was fortunate to escape the proscriptions of Sulla and to escape the attention of the dictator. He joined the army. Caesar was a capable soldier and he received the highest award for bravery in the Roman Republic because of his role in a siege in modern Turkey. On one occasion he was captured by some pirates and after he was ransomed he returned and seized his former captors and crucified them, after all. This led him to be awarded another award for bravery. He became very prominent in Rome because of his lavish expenditure and oratory.
Caesar also forged a political alliance with Crassus, one of Rome's richest men. The ambitious young politician was later elected Pontifex Maximus (chief priest) of Rome and secured for himself the governor's governorship in Spain. Here he defeated two tribal confederations and was voted a Triumph by the Senate, a singular mark of honor for the young aristocrat. Later he joined the First Triumvirate (59 BCE), an informal alliance between Caesar, Pompey and Crassus and they dominated Roman political life for ten years. This arrangement secured the consulship for the Roman aristocrat and the command of an army in northern Italy. This was to mark the start of his career as a general.
How did Caesar become a successful General?
Some allies of the Romans in Gaul (France) were defeated by invading Germanic tribes (55 BCE). Caesar used this as a pretext to intervene in the area, which was outside the Empire. He beat back the Helvetia and massacred many German tribes. This alarmed the Celtic tribes, and they banded together in a defensive alliance. Once more, ever the opportunist Caesar used this as an excuse to invade Gaul. He was to spend the following years conquering the Celts, who were organized into a powerful confederation. Caesar, in a series of battles, defeated major tribes such as the Belgae. Caesar was able to extend his consulship as part of a deal with Pompey and Crassus. The commander launched an invasion of Britain to punish tribes supporting his Gallic opponents (55 BCE).
The Roman also raided deep into Germany to deter the Germanic tribes from intervening in Gaul. In 52 BCE the general faced perhaps the greatest challenge of his life when the Gauls rebelled against Roman rule. A massive Gallic army surrounded the Romans at Allesia, but despite this, the legionnaires prevailed. This victory for Caesar effectively was the end of all resistance to his conquest. The Roman general had conducted what many regarded as an illegal war and the Senate threatened him with the prosecution. To avert this, Caesar marched on Rome with his army and occupied the city.
How did Caesar win the Roman Civil War?
This led to a civil war between him and the optimates (senators), led by Pompey. They fled to the Balkans and recruited a large army. Caesar landed in the Balkans and attacked the Optimates army under the command of Pompey. This campaign was challenging for Caesar, and he was lucky to escape a decisive defeat.
Caesar maneuvered Pompey into a battle at Pharsalus in modern Greece. Caesar was out-numbered, and his opponent was a great general. Still, he was able to defeat the numerically superior enemy at the Battle of Pharsalus. His enemies were shattered and fled all over the known world. Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt but found that the Ptolemies had assassinated his foe. The Roman general became romantically involved with Queen Cleopatra VII and at the Battle of the Nile, he defeated her rival for the throne. In that same year, Asia Minor was invaded by Pharnaces II, king of the Bosphoran kingdom (Crimea). Caesar annihilated the larger army in just five days, and after this, he uttered the line ‘I came, I saw, I conquered.’
The civil war was not over, and the senators and Pompey's followers regrouped in North Africa. Caesar pursued them and landed in modern Tunisia. He fought a bloody draw with his old subordinate Titus Labienus at the battle of Ruspina. However, after receiving some reinforcements he inflicted a decisive defeat on his enemies, at the battle of Thapsus and this led to the suicide of many prominent senators including Cato the Younger. He knew that as long as his enemies were in the field that he was not secure. The remaining senators and Pompeiians regrouped in Spain and once more assembled a large army.
Caesar campaigned in Spain, and he finally defeated his enemies at the Battle of Munda in 45 BCE in Spain. This was the end of the civil wars and the Roman general was a supreme ruler in Rome and had himself made dictator for life. In Rome, he began to plan invasions of Dacia and Parthia but before he could embark on these campaigns he was assassinated in 44 BCE.
Why was Caesar a successful leader?
One of the reasons for Caesar's success was his great leadership. He was a charismatic leader, and he could persuade his men to do anything and do the impossible. This can be seen time and time again. Caesar rallied his men at Alessia and persuaded them to attack numerically superior forces on many battlefields. Caesar's ability to motivate his men and galvanize them into action was unmatched and even his enemies acknowledged this. His men were devoted to him, and they loved their general. They obeyed him, and unlike many contemporary armies, they were very well disciplined.
Caesar reputedly could quell any dissent in the ranks with the sheer force of his personality. Caesar was fortunate to have at his disposal some of the finest soldiers in the ancient era. This and his leadership skills meant that his forces were often invincible even in the most difficult circumstances.
Perhaps the key to Caesar’s leadership skills and ability to inspire men was that he led by example. Like Alexander the Great, he was his own best soldier. He led from the front and if the line threatened to break he would personally fight there, thus inspiring his legions to victory.
He was also able to inspire his men because he promoted men on merit. While his officers were mainly nobles, he usually promoted them only on merit. A good example of this was Mark Anthony, who became his cavalry commander and proved to be fearless in battle. Caeser's belief in merit was unique and this meant that he was supported by many gifted officers who could execute his orders effectively.
How did Caesar revolutionize the use of Artillery?
Artillery was a regular feature of the ancient battlefield. In the ancient world, artillery referred to large weapons that could fire bolts, stones, or projectiles. These were very effective, and they were routinely used in sieges by both the defenders and the attackers. They were mainly used for defensive purposes because they were bulky and not very mobile.
Caesar, in his campaigns in Gaul, brought these weapons in his train, for sieges. These included the ballista which could fire massive bolts and catapults, that could hurl rocks a great distance. Caesar in Gaul began to use these not as defensive weapons but as offensive weapons. He could integrate these weapons into his offensive strategies and employ them in conjunction with the legionnaires and cavalry.
Caesar recognized that catapults and ballistas could break up the massed formations of the Gauls. This allowed the Roman general to attack much larger forces and defeat them. Caesar also used these heavy weapons very successfully in the invasion of Britain. He skillfully used the ballistas on his ships to break the British formations that prevented him from landing on the shore of southern England. He was a pioneer in the offensive use of these weapons and employed them on the battlefield and not just in sieges.
The only other ancient general who deployed artillery in this way was Alexander the Great. Generations of future Roman commanders imitated Caesar’s use of artillery. However, Caesar was also able to use artillery in a conventional way and he was a master of siege warfare. He stormed many Celtic hill forts in Gaul by using ballistas and catapults, such as at the siege of Uxellodunum, in Gaul.
Was Caesar a reckless Commander?
Caesar was a risk-taker, and he regularly devised strategies that were potentially reckless. However, his gambles were always calculated ones and he would take great care of his plans and his tactics and strategies were always well-thought-out. Caesar believed that the best way to win was by launching daring and rapid attacks. This made him an unconventional commander during this time period.
At times his risk-taking resulted in problems. This recklessness meant that he often advanced too quickly, and his supply lines could not keep pace. It was noted at the time that Caesar would often run out of food on his campaigns. For example, when he defeated the Helvetii his troops had already run out of food and other supplies.
However, Caesar was ready to be reckless if he could achieve his twin goals of speed and surprise. It was often stated that Caesar was very fortunate, but his remarkable victories were usually a result of speed and tactical surprise. A good example of this was his victory at Thapsus in modern Tunisia, where his speed enabled him to defeat a larger force of Optimates and allied tribes. Despite his aggressive tactics, Caesar was flexible and was a master of the strategic retreat. That is, he could disengage from a battle or situation and regroup and then fight when the circumstances were more advantageous.
Caesar’s victories changed the Roman Empire and he decisively shaped not only the future of Rome but also Europe. He was a great commander and never suffered a defeat in a battle, with the possible exception of the Battle of Dyrrhachium (48 BC). He was able to prevail over many enemies, including those who were numerically superior and armies led by great commanders such as Pompey. Time and again, he demonstrated his genius on the battlefield. He was fortunate that he commanded an army that was very formidable, highly trained, and disciplined. However, the achievements of Caesar were unmatched in the Roman era.
The factors that have earned Caesar the reputation as one of the greatest generals of all time were his leadership skills. He could inspire and cajole his men, and under his command, they performed remarkable feats. Caesar was an innovator, and he was able to use artillery such as catapults in ways that changed the ancient battlefield. He was a brilliant strategist, and he emphasized speed and surprise, which ensured that the Roman general secured many victories against the odds.
- Syme, Ronald, The Roman Revolution (Oxford, Oxford University, 2002).
- Canfora, Luciano, Julius Caesar: The People's Dictator (Edinburg, Edinburgh University Press, 2006).
- Jiménez, Ramon L., Caesar Against Rome: The Great Roman Civil War (New York, Praeger, 2006).
- Goldsworthy, Adrian, Caesar: Life of a Colossus (Yale University Press, 2008)
- Freeman, Philip. Julius Caesar. (Simon and Schuster, 2008)
- Grant, Michael. The Twelve Caesars (New York: Penguin Books, 1979)
- Osgood, Josiah. Caesar's Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006)
- Holland, Tom. Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic (London, Anchor Press, 2003)
- Goodman, Rob. Rome's Last Citizen: The Life and Legacy of Cato: Mortal Enemy of Caesar (St. Martin's Griffen, 2014)
Related DailyHistory.org Articles
- Goldsworthy, Adrian, Caesar: Life of a Colossus (Yale University Press, 2008), p. 13
- Goldsworthy, p. 112
- Caesar, The Gallic Wars (London, Penguin Books, 1984), p 19
- Caesar, p. 89
- Plutarch, Life of Caesar, 45, 7
- Jonathan P. Roth, Roman Warfare (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 116
- Roth, p. 116
- Plutarch, 43 7
- Barry Strauss, Masters of Command: Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, and the Genius of Leadership (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2012), p. 137
- Roth, p. 189
- Hans Delbrück, Warfare in Antiquity, trans. Walter J. Renfroe, Jr., History of the Art of War 1 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990), p. 541
- Caesar, p. 221
- Holland, Tom, Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic (London, Anchor Books, 2003), p. 213