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[[File: Homo_sapiens_and_Neanderthal.jpg|300px|thumbnail|left|Modern Recreation and Comparison of an Early Modern Man (
R) and a Neanderthal Man ( L)]]
The study of human history, often termed “historiography,” is technically the study of the past through primary documents and sources. Although those primary sources can include art and architecture, they are most often written documents, including religious texts, annals and other historiographical records, and administrative records just to name a few. According to scholars, anything before the dawn of human civilization and writing, which roughly coincides with 3,100 BC, is considered “pre-history.” But obviously history was being made before 3,100 BC, so it too is studied, but with different methodologies, tools, and by a different set of scholars.