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300px|thumbnail|left| Modern Interpretation of Alexander Cutting the Gordian Knot by Jean-Simon Berthélemy (1743-1811)]]__NOTOC__
In 334 BC, Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander “the Great,” began his epic conquest of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. It would take Alexander and his army more than four years to conquer the Persians, and almost from the start of the campaign the fighting was tough. When Alexander led his army from Europe across the Hellespont, he was immediately faced with the difficult prospect of having to conquer Anatolia/Asia Minor, which was home to the ancient Lydians, Phrygians, and a number of other peoples who had grown accustomed to Achaemenid rule. Alexander knew that once he conquered the ancient city of Gordium, it was an open road south to the Levant and then into Egypt and Mesopotamia.