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As societies became more urban and cities grew, maintaining security became a major priority for governments. Although threats in the ancient world and late antiquity were seen as external, it was also internal unrest that threatened cities and kingdoms. The development of policing was an important change that allowed cities to become safe enough to grow and prosper, but that history and its origin are complex.
In Mesopotamia and Egypt, by the 3rd millennium BCE, local officials appeared to have been tasked with rounding up criminals and bringing them to justice. The appearance of the first law codes during this time suggest crime was prevalent in cities and as urban places grew we begin to see an enforcement body, entrusted to local government officials, in charge with bringing in criminals and others who might have committed given crimes.<ref>For more on Mesopotamian and Egyptian policing efforts, see: Stevens, D. J. (2009). An introduction to American policing. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, pg. 41.</ref>
The city of ancient Rome probably had one of the most extensive ancient policing forces, as the city's ancient size may have reached over a million inhabitants. Similar to Greece, magistrates used slaves to patrol and maintain order in Rome. Authority may have been problematic, as slaves were not seen as being able to give binding decisions such as who to arrest. Slaves, therefore, had to utilize the authority of their magistrates, and assume that their authority had credibility, in order to enforce their actions. By the period of Augusts in the late first century BCE and first century CE, the city of Rome developed the so-called <i>vigiles</i>, who acted as a group that were responsible for safety, security, and fire suppression (i.e, acted as a fire department). Similar to earlier Greek system, the <i>vigiles</i> were privately owned slaves tasked with enforcing civil order.<ref>For more on ancient Rome's policing, see: Dempsey, J. S., & Forst, L. S. (2016). An introduction to policing (Eighth edition). Boston, MA, USA: Cengage Learning, pg. 3.</ref>
In ancient China, the development of the prefecture system by the mid-first millennium BCE, during the so-called Spring and Autumn period, included prefects given the responsibility with internal security in their regions. They became responsible in raising a force and enforcing an arrests for criminals. During the Tang dynasty, law enforcement became organized into a force called the Gold Bird Guards. This force was responsible in making arrests and was also assisted by citizens, who were expected to assist in arrests. The guards were composed of citizens.<ref>For more on ancient Chinese policing, see: York, W. H. (2012). Health and wellness in antiquity through the Middle Ages. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood, pg. 132.</ref>
In the Medieval period, policing began to emerge from municipalities that faced increasing crime and banditry in areas where kings could not or did not send soldiers or guards to protect citizens. One development during the Anglo-Saxon period and later was the concept of sheriff, a government official in charge of a shire or county. The office derives from a revee, who were officials responsible in a shire for security. Their jobs were to maintain order in shires and security,
where in the early Medieval period banditry and raiding were common. During this time, policing was often at local levels such as shires or counties. Watchmen were often employed or appointed in towns to look out for any disruptive or illegal behavior. Local towns would often band together and form groups to protect travelers on roads. Local lords and nobles were largely responsible for maintaining order in their lands. Constables were sometime employed to help enforce laws in shires, villages, and towns.
<ref> For more on policing in the Medieval period, see: Siegel, L. J., & Worrall, J. L. (2015). Essentials of criminal justice (Ninth edition). Stamford, CT, USA: Cengage Learning.</ref>
The Santa Hermandades were one such group created in Spain who often kept pilgrims and others safe on roads. They were an association of individuals who saw their task was to keep order and security. Protective councils largely maintained the authority and power to protect citizens in many regions throughout Europe. In France, the positions of the Constable and Marshal of France were military positions that were also responsible for internal security. These officials were responsible for repelling internal strife but also keeping peace in the cities and highways of the country.<ref>For more on
the Santa Hermandades, see: Constable, O. R. , & Zurro, D. ( Eds.). ( 2012). Medieval Iberia: readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish sources (2nd ed). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press , pg. 252.</ref >
By the early 1800s, London became the largest city and had continued to grow. Its existing policing was severely constrained for the growing population. The Metropolitan Police act of 1829 established London's police force, which became known as Scotland Yard (Figure 2). The police in London were distinctly organized to look different from the military, where they were not issued weapons and had very different uniforms. The 1835 Municipal Corporations Act then began to broaden policing throughout Britain by expanding policing to 178 boroughs, creating now a national effort for policing. This and the French model then became the models in which other states began to develop their major urban and national policing forces.<ref>For more on the development of the Metropolitan Police, see: Shpayer-Makov, H. (2011). The ascent of the detective: police sleuths in Victorian and Edwardian England. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.</ref>
Ever since populations began to concentrate in urban regions, policing became a major issue for urban societies. In periods of instability, important changes became established, such as more organized posts and informal agreements that formed organized protection in regions. Nevertheless, policing was not formally developed until the 17th century in Paris and
and early 19th century in Britain. It was the rapid growth of Paris and London that forced the creation of formal and dedicated police officers. In the 18th century, policing began to diverge into formal and professional roles for investigations as well as protection of citizens.