What is the Long Term Impact of the War of the Spanish Succession on Europe
The War of the Spanish Succession was a devastating war that occurred from 1702-1715. It embroiled all of Europe's major powers, including Britain, France, Austria, Spain, Prussia and other German kingdoms, Italian kingdoms, Portugal, and the Netherlands. The main result of the war is that it prevented France from unifying itself with Spain after the death of Charles II from the Habsburg dynasty. However, more than resolving this possible unification, it created a new order of power that had global consequences.
War and its Outcomes
The war was initially sparked by the death of Charles II, the last Habsburg monarch on the throne of Spain (Figure 1). Charles II had promised the throne to Philip, Duke of Anjou, the grandson of Louis XIV. With the death of Charles and Philip being proclaimed king in Spain, Louis XIV embarked on taking the rest of the Spanish territories, particularly in Spanish Netherlands. This was seen as an attempt by Louis to unify much of Western Europe under his control and solidifying France's dominance in Europe. This triggered an alliance between the Dutch, England, Prussia, Hanover, other German states, and Portugal. On the other side, France's Louis was allied with Bavaria, Cologne, Mantua, and Savoy's dukes. However, Savoy later switched sides.
England was ably led on the battlefield by the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy. Due to a falling out, Prince Eugene had switched his alliance from France to England's one. With perhaps Europe's two most able generals, under Marlborough and Prince Eugene, decisive victories were achieved that reversed French gains. They were forced to retreat from Germany, the Netherlands, and Italy. In particular, the British relied less on its monarchy, and parliament played a more active role in the war. By 1708, France was ready to make terms. Nevertheless, British demands proved onerous, as Britain wanted Louis to send his own army to depose his own grandson from his throne in Spain. This led to the war to drag on.
However, by 1711, things had changed, as the Duke of Marlborough fell out with his English backers and the rise of Archduke Charles from the Habsburg's in Austria changed the situation, where his rise threatened to bring Spain back under him. In effect, it diminished the appetite in Europe for continuing the war. Additionally, the alliance against France found difficulty fighting in Spain itself, where the territory and fighting proved more difficult. This led to an eventual series of treaties that ended the war, starting in 1713 (Treaty of Utrecht) and then later the treaties of Rastatt and Baden.
The treaties effectively kept Spain under Louis' grandson, where now the House of Bourbon ruled, although it also meant it could not unite with Spain. Furthermore, France and Spain were forced to give up territories, including the Spanish Netherlands and Naples in Europe. Other smaller territories such as Gibraltar were lost. In the New World, Newfoundland was given to the British forces. Effectively, the war, according to the parties that accepted the treaties, kept the balance of power in Europe, where France and Spain retained their desire for a Bourbon king. Still, that power was not as strong as Louis initially desired, as it had to give up territories. The war could have been more of a disaster for France. Still, by 1711-13 they were in a better position to negotiate.
While, in principle, the war maintained a balance in European politics among the powers, the reality was different. First, the new United Kingdom that had formally united Scotland with England had emerged as a global power, in strong part, thanks to the war and its aftermath. Britain gained several key territories, particularly in the New World, such as Newfoundland, and access to trade and areas where the French had once dominated. Additionally, they controlled Gibraltar, taking it from Spain (and still have to this day).
However, rather than mainly weakening their main enemy, France, the war significantly weakened the Dutch, where large debts straddled them. This now allowed Britain to take over many trade opportunities in Africa, North America, and in particular in India and the east that the Dutch once controlled. Britain's rise as a commercial and territorial empire had essentially accelerated due to the war's consequences. In fact, the rise of the British India East Company, for instance, greatly hastened after this time, particularly as the Dutch East India Company's fortunes began to wane soon after the war (Figure 2).
For the Dutch, the war dragged for a long time, and the population of three million could not cope with a large debt. In essence, the Dutch had been very influential in European affairs in the 17th century. Still, after this war, that influence had declined sharply as their maritime empire, and trading prowess declined due to the war's debts and cost. In effect, despite being on the side that gained the most from the war's ending, the Dutch saw significant losses in their overall influence and economic prowess.
For France, the war seemed to go disastrous in the first few years, but by the end of the war, they were in a stronger position, and despite losses in North America, they did not lose the bulk of their colonies. What may have weakened France was more to do with France's monarchy had become too centralized and strong. Additionally, the war's costs had a long-term consequence, like France, after this war, began to find it more difficult to pay for its conflicts, incurring more debt. This created greater distance between the French government and the French people, where over time, this distance proved devastating and helped lead to the French Revolution. In fact, the later Seven Year War and American Revolution likely contributed more to the decline of France's royal family. The flexibility of the parliamentary system, however, which did not depend on a strong ruler, such as the system in Britain, may have an effect and influence through demonstrating its effectiveness in conducting campaigns by changing leadership and not being prone to impulsive monarchs.
For Spain, the war brought a large territorial loss in Europe, although its overseas empire remained intact. Never again did Spain arise to be as influential as it was in European affairs in the 16th and 17th centuries. The main effect was the new ruling house, the Bourbons, brought new ideas in government and administration that had developed in France, allowing Spain to more rapidly modernizing its political infrastructure in the 18th century. This briefly restored Spanish power, although it never gained its dominance before the war in European affairs. Spain also became more centralized, where King Philip united the crowns of Aragon and Castile.
Effects on States Today
The effects of the war are evident today. In Gibraltar, Spain wants the territory back, where it is still a British overseas territory. The rise of Britain after the war also enabled it to become the largest empire in history. In particular, Britain was better able to focus on the East after this war, as the East India Company arose as a commercial and later territorial power. In effect, by dominating sea trade, after the Dutch's collapse, Britain had a way to finance its overseas empire. This meant that no major global conflict did not involve Britain to some level after this war, as the British Empire now became the dominant trade and territorial empire across much of the globe. Today, this has meant many countries have effectively taken up the legacies of British imperial rule. In India, for instance, legacies on education, government, and language are evident. This is also true in other countries that Britain was able to expand into as its overseas power increased, including in Africa and Asia.
The war helped to lead to the downfall of France's monarchy, as it increasingly became isolated from its population and more centralized. High financial costs also led to debt that made it difficult for France to recover from. In France and elsewhere in Western Europe, particularly as the French Revolution became influential, the gradual move toward parliamentary systems began to hasten, as devastating wars showed monarchical-led states' weakness. In effect, the road to Western Europe's democracies hastened due to the costliness and changes brought about by wars such as the Spanish Succession War.
Furthermore, the Spanish Succession War showed that devastating wars could be created by simply having a monarch die without heirs. Creating systems that can withstand changes to any individual family or household proved to be more attractive as the European Enlightenment continued. The states we see today in Western Europe reflect the evolutionary changes that were shaped by the war, as its financial and human costs began to lead to different forms of states that governed with less dependence on monarchs.
At first, the Spanish Succession War appeared to be similar to other wars that dominated Europe in the late 17th century. However, the long-term nature of the conflict and lack of clear resolution for many years led to it being costly for some countries, particularly the Dutch and Spain, while others greatly benefited, such as Britain. This helped shape global affairs that developed in the next few centuries, as Britain came to dominate global trade and world affairs. In the long-term, however, European monarchies failed to easily resolve an issue such as succession without launching major wars that helped to weaken the influence of monarchies throughout Europe. This process had started in Britain earlier, during the English Civil War, but the War of the Spanish Succession and later Seven Years War helped to hasten the French monarchy's demise. The rise of the French Republic would be another critical step in Europe to removing the influence of monarchies, but the War of the Spanish Succession shaped this process in many ways. Some of Western Europe's last remaining territorial conflicts, such as the debate regarding Gibraltar, is also a legacy from this war.
Related DailyHistory.org Articles
- For more on the background leading up to the war, see: Falkner, J. (2015) The War of the Spanish succession 1701-1714. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, Pen & Sword Military.
- For more on the alliances and war leaders in the war, in particular Marlborough's role, see: Dorrell, N. (2015) Marlborough’s other army: the British Army and the campaigns of the First Peninsula War, 1702-1712. Century of the soldier 2. Solihull, Helion.
- For more on the treaties related to the war, see: Linda Frey & Marsha Frey (eds.) (1995) The treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession: a historical and critical dictionary. Westport, Conn, Greenwood Press.
- For more on the long-term impact on Britain, see: Hattendorf, J.B. (1987) England in the War of the Spanish Succession: a study of the English view and conduct of grand strategy, 1702-1712. Modern European history. New York, Garland Pub.
- For more on the war's effect on Holland, see: Satsuma, S. (2013) Britain and colonial maritime war in the early eighteenth century: silver, seapower, and the Atlantic. Woodbridge, Suffolk ; Rochester, NY, The Boydell Press.
- For more on France in the 18th century, see: Dhondt, F. (2015) Balance of power and norm hierarchy: Franco-British diplomacy after the Peace of Utrecht. Legal history library volume 17. Leiden, The Netherlands ; Boston, Brill Nijhoff.
- For more on Spain after the war, see: Roberts, J.M. (1997) The Penguin history of Europe. London, England ; New York, N.Y., USA, Penguin Books, pg. 17.
- For more on the legacy of Britain, connecting back to the War of the Spanish Succession, see: Satsuma, S. (2013) Britain and colonial maritime war in the early eighteenth century: silver, seapower and the Atlantic. Woodbridge, Suffolk ; Rochester, NY, The Boydell Press.
- For more on the rise of Western Europe's democracies, and the long road, see: Waltraud Schelkle, Georg Elwert, & Martin Kohli (eds.) (2000) Paradigms of social change: modernization, development, transformation, evolution. Frankfurt/Main, Campus-Verl. [u.a.], pg. 106.
Updated December 3, 2020